As policymakers worldwide move forcefully to promote accelerated adoption of EVs, DEEP has research projects that will inform several important dimensions of policy. Some questions include: How responsive are consumers to EV purchase subsidies? How is adoption among low-income households affected by the presence of subsidies? Do low-income and minority-ethnicity households face barriers to purchasing EVs (e.g. discrimination or the need to drive farther to purchase EVs)? Does charging a large number of EVs affect reliability of the electricity grid? What are the pollution benefits of EVs and the causal effect of EV policies on greenhouse gas and local pollutant emissions? DEEP has active research investigating each of these questions, with projects funded by the Sloan Foundation, California Air Resources Board, and the California Department of Transportation.